How the tower was straightened
Leaning tower of Pisa has stopped tipping. Experts say that they protected its structure against collapsing for the next 300 years.
Over the last 10 years, the area around the famous Italian tower was a huge construction site. If it was against the gravity, its fame would be limited to the circle of art and architecture historians.
The famous Torre Pendente is essentially a cathedral belfry, a part of a complex of a cathedral, a baptistery and a cemetery. Its worldwide fame (annually visited by about 10 million tourists) owes to a minor architectural fault.
Specialists from various industries are saving on the tower in over 700 years. The building resisted earthquakes and thunderbolts. Some say they have suffered only as a result of individual committees. This medieval building is constantly balancing on the edge. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was closed to visitors in 1990. Since then, 14 million dollars have been spent on the design and building of the building. The possibility of freezing the soil with liquid nitrogen, drying by electrophoresis and even soil suction was considered.
The famous Leaning Tower of Pisa has finally been deprived of lean - recently told London's The Times. It helped to place 900 tonnes of lead on the north side of the foundation, which is a counterbalance to the south-facing tower. The treatment was administered by prof. John Burland from London's Imperial College. He was called to the rescue tower.
Thanks for the implementation of the latest project, the monument will survive the next 300 years. Of course, it does not fall away as a result of accident. According to specialists, the solution that has been used can be erected by half a meter. The tower was tried to go straighten already during construction.
1174 - The Leaning Tower of Pisa began to tilt at the beginning of construction. At first, its northern part, then the southern one, leaned forward. The building was erected.
1178 - to balance the northern part, the constructors, finishing on the north side of the tower. When the third level was completed, the southern part of the structure began to tilt. The columns on the north side.
1278 - construction was stopped. The tower bent south by 81 centimeters.
1350 - the construction is crowned with a bell tower, the tower deviates from the vertical by 2.4 m.
1934 - Mussolini orders to straighten the tower. 361 holes were drilled in the structure and 80 tons of mortar were introduced. As a result of the treatments, the historic building bent an additional 2 cm.
1990 - the tower is closed to visitors.
1992 - engineers used steel reinforcements.
1993 - 94 - The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to straighten out. Special weights placed at the foundations inhibited further skewing, 13 mm, then even by 2 cm. A steel rim was put on the construction site.
1995 - liquid nitrogen is pumped into the ground to ensure stability. The tower deflects 2.5 millimeters.