Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore) - the world's largest stone dome
Where is located Florence Cathedral?
Address of Florence Cathedral is Piazza del Duomo, 50122 Florence, Italy
show on map
When was built Florence Cathedral?
Built date of Florence Cathedral is September 9, 1296 - begin of construction
1436 - construction completed
Facts, informations and history of Florence Cathedral
The present Cathedral was built on the site of the Santa Reparata Church standing here in the 7th century, whose remains can be seen in the crypt.
"Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Flowers" symbolizes the growing importance of Florence and is much larger than its predecessor. It was designed as the largest Catholic church in the world.
Construction began at the end of the 13th century by Arnolfo di Cambio and the exterior dominant dome was added in the 15th century according to a design by Filippo Brunelleschi, which was one of the most significant architectural achievements of the entire Renaissance.
After more than 100 years from the start of construction, the City of Florence ordered a competition for the dome. When Brunelleschi took part in the competition, he was the only one to come up with an idea that did not concern wood, which attracted the attention of the judges. This solution saved more than 400 trees and did not require so much manpower and time.
Brunelleschi was a goldsmith and had no previous architectural training, moreover, when he was born, the construction of the cathedral had been going on for 80 years and nobody had an idea to finish the cathedral roof. His knowledge of blacksmithing and his sense of aesthetics and practicality used Brunelleschi to find a solution and build a masterpiece that is still impressive today.
The size of the dome and its structure are impressive. Brunelleschi managed to create a huge dome without supports thanks to an ingenious design that consisted of an inner shell made of bricks with a herringbone pattern and a horizontal stone chain, which reduced stress and allowed for an even weight distribution.
Being the third highest cathedral in the world, the building is 153 meters long, 90 meters wide and 90 meters high to the base of the dome. Priority belongs to St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome, second place is occupied by St. Paul's Cathedral in London. The width of the naves of the cathedral is 38 meters.
This world's largest brick dome was built with more than 4 million bricks, weighing over 40,000 tons in total. It has a diameter of 45.5 meters and is 114.5 meters high. Its construction took only 16 years (1420-1436).
The building actually consists of two domes. Currently only the tiles of the outer shell are visible from outside. Between it and the ingenious construction there are stairs. While climbing the 436 steps of the stairs, you can see the original brick layouts and see the original herringbone pattern.
The exterior of the basilica is covered with polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink, borders on white and has a sophisticated 19th century facade of Gothic revival by Emilio De Fabris.
The three-nave interior of the cathedral is less colorful and minimalist in detail. The exception is a fresco depicting the Last Judgement on the interior of the dome, painted between 1572 and 1579, by Giorgio Vasari and Frederico Zuccari.
The basilica projection resembles the plan of the Latin cross, where the transept is replaced by an octagonal presbytery surrounded by three apsides in which five small apsides are built in from the inside.
The magnificent stained-glass windows located here were mostly made between 1434 and 1455. The designers are famous artists, including Donatello, Andrea del Castagno and Paolo Uccello.
The famous brown door on the Baptistery, known as the Gates of Paradise, was made by the winner of a national competition in 1401. Many years before the dome itself was built, a competition was held to decorate the eastern door of the Baptistery. Each contestant got the same materials and the same amount of bronze for the door. The two finalists were young 23-year-old Fillippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti, who were both trained metalworkers and goldsmiths. They also liked the same biblical scene for the front door - the scene where Abraham kills his son. Ultimately, he won the classic Ghiberti style. After many years, Michelangelo commented that the door looked like the gates of paradise, thus giving it that name.
The bell tower adjacent to the cathedral, known as Campanile Giotta, is 84.7 meters high and about 15 meters wide. It is the most eloquent testimony of the fourteenth-century Florentine Gothic architecture. Construction began in 1334 with Giotto, followed by Andrea Pisano after his death, and was completed in 1359 by Francesco Talenti, who created large windows on higher levels.
In 1578 the unfinished facade was demolished and only after numerous competitions, in 1871 the Emilia de Fabris project was chosen. The cathedral was not finally completed until nearly 600 years later, when the facade was completed in 1887.
The name of the Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral is derived from the symbol of the city of Florence, that is a lily ("fiore" in Italian means "flower").
Santa Maria del Fiore is located in the cathedral complex in Piazza del Duomo, which also includes the Baptistery and Campanile Giotta. The entire complex is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
"And when I thought of Florence, it was like a miracle city embalmed and like a corolla, because it was called the city of lilies and its cathedral, St. Mary of the Flowers." - Marcel Proust, Swann's Way
Architect of Florence Cathedral
How many meters have Florence Cathedral?
Height of Florence Cathedral is 114.5 meters
A church is a type of sacred building that acts as a place of prayer and religious practice within Christianity. The architecture of churches has evolved over the centuries, being influenced by different styles and historical periods. Below, I provide information on the precursors of church architecture, the most popular architectural styles and some well-known church buildings.... czytaj więcej.
The Renaissance is an architectural style that developed in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, characterised by a return to the classical forms and elements of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The Renaissance was a reaction to the Gothic style that prevailed in Europe from the 12th to 15th centuries and was associated with churches and sacred buildings. Renaissance means 'rebirth' and the style is considered the precursor to modern architecture. ... czytaj więcej.
Other dimensions, parameters and frequently asked questions
What area have Florence Cathedral?
Florence Cathedral have area of 8 300 m² - floor area
What material is the building made of?
Florence Cathedral is made of the following materials: Marble, brick
What is the cost of entry for Florence Cathedral?
Tickets for Florence Cathedral are available at the following prices and variants:
- Access to the library is free. Other parts of the complex (dome, baptistery, crypts, Campanile di Giotto and Museo dell’Opera del Duomo) are covered by a combined ticket.
- Adults: €18
- Children (6-11 years): €3
- Children under 6 years: Free
At what times is open Florence Cathedral?
Florence Cathedral is open or accessible to the public on the following dates and times:
- Entrance to the church from 10:00, closing at 16:00, 16:30 or 17:00.
- Dome: from 08:30, closed on Sunday.
- Belfry: from 08:30 (414 stairs / without elevators).
- Crypts: from 10:00, closed on Sunday.
- Baptistery: usually from 11.15.
- Museum: from 9:00, closed on Sunday afternoon.
The building is also known by other common names or in the original language, i.e. The Duomo, Katedra we Florencji
Is the building on the UNESCO World Heritage List?
The listing took place in the year 1982.
Details of the entry are available on the Unesco website at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/174bis/
The official website of the building, where up-to-date information can be found, is http://www.museumflorence.com