Farnborough Airport (Farnborough, Wielka Brytania) - informacje o budynku, zdjęcia, fakty - Budowle.pl
Nazwa: Farnborough Airport
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grudzień 2002 - zakończenie budowy hangaru
50 milionów funtów - wartość lotniska
35 metrów - wieża kontroli lotów
4 000 m2 - powierzchnia budynków operacyjnych
W skład lotniska wchodzą trzy budynki: 35-metrowa wieża kontroli lotów, hangar o powierzchnii 12 tys. m? i oraz terminal o powierzchnii 4 tys. m?.
Główne atrium to trójwymiarowa owalna kopuła w której znajdują się hole dla klientów oraz biura konferencyjne dla podróżnych biznesmanów,
Losnisko ma pozwolenia na obsługę do 28 000 startów i lądowań samolotów rocznie.
Zbudowany ze stalowych ram terminal waży jedynie 350 ton, co jest o 50 ton mniejsze niż ciężar gotowego do odlotu Boeinga 747.
Hangar jest długi na 300 metrów, szeroki na 45 m. i wysoki na 22 m., przylega on do terminalu.
Part of the ?45m redevelopment of TAG Farnborough Airport, which also includes a 35m high air traffic control tower and brand new terminal, the ?9m three bay hangar is 290m long, 45m deep and 22m high at the apex and large enough to accommodate six Boeing 737s.
TAG Farnborough has a vision for the airport and seeks to differentiate themselves from other service providers in this field through the design and quality of the facilities it provides. The challenge set for the design and construction team of Reid Architecture, Buro Happold and Bovis Lend Lease was to accommodate the functional requirements with a design aesthetic that reflects the qualities of the TAG brand image and yet without a cost premium over the more conventional design and build 'shoe box' hangars.
The design team appreciated that they had to adopt a radical 'back to first principles' approach to meet this challenge and develop a design that was ultra efficient. As with most buildings, a very significant component of cost is the cladding - it was essential to reduce the area of the elevations as much as possible. The added benefit of reducing the volume of the building and minimising the clad elevations is improved aesthetics, reduced wind load on the structure and a reduced impact on the surroundings.
Various structural systems were explored with the arch proving to be the most efficient. The arch followed the natural profile of the plane geometry, ie maximum headroom where the tail fin is and reduced at the wing tips. From a structural point of view an arch is a very efficient structural system acting largely in pure compression minimising bending and deflection. Traditionally the arch reactions are resisted by either using thrust blocks, which would have been large and expensive, or by installing a tie between the arch ends. More usually in a tied arch of this type the tie is placed above the minimum level of the plane increasing the overall height of the building. To avoid raising the structure, the arch form was extended to ground level through the use of inclined "A" frames in the form of concrete filled tubes. In this way the tie could be placed underground in the form of prestressed reinforced concrete beam. By introducing roller doors in tail fin slots in the gable end of the hangar the elevation could be reduced further. Fit out of accommodation within the hangar envelope can then take place with offices and workshop accommodation located around the support legs, rather than in 'bolt on' accommodation at the back or sides of the hangar as is more normally the case.
A key concern in the design was the bending induced in the arch through asymmetric loading. Bending resistance was introduced by forming the arch from a trussed arch 3m deep formed from rectangular hollow section chords and square hollow section lacing. The trusses are spaced 9m and span 90m. Secondary trusses link the trusses together and reduce the buckling length of the chords. Each of the trusses is connected to "A" framed support via a pin. The "A" framed legs are made up of concrete filled circular hollow section legs and a headpiece fabricated from 80mm steel plate. Two wind trusses spanning 90m achieve lateral stability. To gain a detailed understanding of how the structure is behaving it was modelled as a three-dimensional non-linear model.
By working closely with the steelwork contractor an erection procedure was established which proved both simple, cost effective and reliable. Each 90m truss was split into three segments. A double bay was assembled on the ground comprising two truss segments linked with all connecting secondary trusses and purlins. These segments would then be lifted in place and jointed in the air. After an initial learning curve and some refinements this method proved very successful. The hangar steel was erected on programme.
The hangar construction commenced with ground works in October/November 2001. Steelwork erection started January/February 2002. The main hangar was completed in November/December 2002 with additional office space being added until April 2003. A total of 823t of structural steel (63 kg/m2) and approximately 100t of cold rolled steel was used in this hangar.
This project has been a good example of what can be achieved by close co-operation between the client, the design team and the specialist contractors and how creative design can achieve a result that completely satisfies the clientâ??s aspirations at a cost of no more than conventional solutions and yet lifts the spirits and is a positive addition to our built environment.
A fundamentally simple concept that meets all the taxing demands of a fast-moving industry has generated a clear solution that is elegant in its design, rational in its engineering technology and economic in its means of implementation. This hangar now sets the standards to which others must aspire. TAG's design and construction team has produced a winner!
The column-free interior is a play of daylight on smooth white curved surfaces and sweeping stairways, its aesthetic drawn from airship interiors, ocean liners and early art deco airport buildings. Streamlined and assured, this is a dream terminal for those who find the bigger airports a form of cruel punishment.
Described by its designers as a "theatre of aviation", the terminal also houses meeting and conference rooms, and a balcony sheltered by a projecting eave from where you can watch the comings and goings of aircraft.
In addition, the use of space within the structure is improved by the removal of the traditional bottom member from the truss. Previously, arches were tied between pillars, which intrude into the hangar space. However, this new approach vastly improved space efficiency and environmental performance.
"The building has proven to be a success structurally, aesthetically and economically."
"We don't need high walls," says Squibbs. "We can tie the arch below ground level. As a result, the building has less environmental impact ? it is much less in your face.
The curve minimises the volume, so you have less air to heat. Also, the curved roof has a minimal surface area, so you use less cladding and lower your costs. It also has a better wind profile, so less bracing is needed."
The connecting node between truss and floor has been enlarged into an expressive A-frame section. This maximises structural efficiency and creates a space in which the ancillary accommodation is located, without impinging on the usable hangar space.
The entire roof is also clad in Kalzip aluminium profiled sheets, which have been given a 'stucco embossed' finish. This means the roof not only has a high degree of structural integrity but also reduces the potential for glare, which can be a real danger at airports.
"The beauty of the Kalzip aluminium standing seam system," says Matthew Bedward, director at Reid Architecture, "is that there are no penetrative fixings across the span of the roof. This means no holes and no leaks."
"The standing seams of the outer profile sheets lock onto special ST clips mounted onto the substructure; the seam of the following sheet overlaps the first and is then 'zipped' closed using a special zipping machine, which runs along the seam. This creates a watertight closure, which still lets the system 'breathe' naturally through the overlapped seams."
The undulating roof form echoes the surrounding landscape, as well as giving the structure the kind of unique character that TAG Aviation had been looking for. It gives Farnborough Airport a striking, progressive image.
CONTROLLED COST AND EASY CONSTRUCTION
The method of construction of the aluminium sheets, some of which were roll-formed on site, allowed the roof to be clad in long, single-sheet lengths. This, along with the fact that no welded lap joints were required, made construction simpler and quicker.
"Innovation is still possible when working on a smaller scale."
Bovis Lend Lease was happy with how easy the building was to erect, and TAG Aviation was pleased with the final cost.
Since its completion, the structure has been officially commended for its structural steel design.
"It is a winner all round," says Squibbs. "It is certainly a development in hangar design, but conservatism in the industry means that most hangars are still square-sided. But our clients are delighted with it, and they have had no problem letting the space. You need a client who believes in what you are doing."
"TAG Aviation's brief was for a building that had architectural quality, and yet the ability to compete with conventional 'shoebox' design and build options was critical," comments Buro Happold's senior structural engineer, Thomas Gabele.
"The Reid Architecture design, with the sweeping curve to the roof, gave us the opportunity to explore alternative engineering solutions for designing elegant widespan structures in steel. The resulting lightweight structure is visually pleasing and still represents an economic solution for the client."
With demand for office space higher than expected, the building has proven to be a success structurally, aesthetically and economically. It could come to set the tone for future hangar design.
# Flying can only take place between 0700 - 2200 weekdays and 0800 - 2000 at weekends and bank holidays.
# Aircraft are limited to those types with a manufacturer's maximum take-off weight below 50 tonnes. This limit allows the operation of inter-continental business aircraft such as the Gulfstream V and Global Express. An exception is made for up to 1,500 movements per annum by purpose designed business aircraft up to 80 tonnes to accommodate the Boeing Business Jet and Airbus Corporate Jet.
Farnborough Airport (Farnborough, Wielka Brytania)
"One of the biggest challenges facing the project was the design of the hangar."
Pogoda w okolicy
Opis budowli dodał: wojto Dodano: 2006-09-06 Wyświetleń strony: 909